When the foot is twisted, the soft tissues can tear or the bones can break or both. Since the ankle joint is so tightly fitted together, even a displacement of the bones by as little as 1 mm can cause a significant increase in the abnormal forces across the joint, eventually leading to arthritis. When the bones break, swelling and instability occur. Ice, elevation and support are the initial steps. The definitive treatment is based on the fracture pattern and the degree of displacement. Early accurate reduction of the fracture and support with a splint or surgical plates and screws are extremely important. X-rays, MRI and CT scans are used to define the fracture patterns. Accuracy in diagnosis and treatment are the key to a successful outcome.
A recent study suggested that meniscus surgery doesn't help. Studies can be misleading. Even small losses of meniscus tissue lead to big changes in force concentration on the tibia (shin bone) and eventually arthritis.
The dreaded “hammy” is the tearing of the muscle or tendon fibers of the powerful hamstring muscles at the back of the leg. It’s dreaded because the pain is sharp, and the recovery can be long. Here is what’s known and what’s new: